:: The Vikings of Bjornstad ::
Viking Runes
The Danish "Long twig" or Younger Futhark

By the Viking Age in Scandinavia the "younger" futhark, the alphabet of the Old Norse language, included only 16 runes.  The 24 runes of the Anglo-Saxon, or elder, futhark had been simplified, adapted or discarded.  There were two primary variants of the younger futhark, one of which was the Swedo-Norwegian, or "short-twig" futhark and the more common Danish "long twig" futhark shown below.  And, of course, this futhark was neither standardized nor used consistently.

Phonetic Value Rune Old Norse Name Translation of Name
Main Alt.
fv cattle, money, gold
uo/ö/v/y úr(r) drizzling rain/slag/aurochs
thdh thurs thurs (“giant”), similar in sound to the English "th" as in "the"
oä/ą áss The god Odin
r- reidh a ride, riding / vehicle / thunderclap
kg/ng kaun a sore
hg hagall hail
n - naudh(r) need, bondage, fetters
ie/ä/y/j íss ice
aä/e ár (good) year, harvest
s - sól sun
td/nd Týr The god Týr
bp/mb bjarkan birch(-goddess)
m - madhr man, human
l - lögr sea, waterfall (liquid)
-Re ýr yew, bow of yew wood.  Represents the "sje" sound which is similar to the English sound for "she".

Primary source:
  • Runes: Reading the Past, R.I.Page, University of California Press/British Museum, 1989, ISBN 0-520-06114-4
  • digitalnorseman.com
  • Runelore, Edred Thorsson, Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1987, ISBN 0-87728-667-1
  • Rudiments of Runelore, Stephen Pollington, Anglo-Saxon Books, 1995, ISBN 1-898281-16-5
  ©   For information contact Jack Garrett at info@vikingsofbjornstad.com